Thursday, August 25, 2016

Ohio's Archaic Heritage: Archaic Settlements #NativeAmerica #Ohio

An Archaic Village

Ohio's Archaic Heritage 

Archaic Settlements

Native Americans first dwelt in Southern Ohio because they could not go further north. Most of Ohio had been covered in glaciers. Once the glaciers retreated back into Canada, the prehistoric Native Americans began to explore the newly transformed Ohio. Mankind had to adapt when the mammoths and other large mammals went extinct. They developed new hunting techniques and weapons that granted them more freedom. These changes began at the start of the Archaic Period. Eventually the Paleoindians disappeared and the Archaic Culture thrived. The lifestyle changes did not happen overnight but had taken several decades for the new to replace the old.

Archaic Ohio
Although the Archaic Native Americans were highly mobile they did establish settlements. Each of the settlements are completely diverse based on the local resources. Ohio, during the Archaic Period, had four different geographic areas that each presented the prehistoric man with a wide range of diverse resources. These areas are seen in this graphic.

With the transition from mobile to a more sedentary lifestyle, Archaic Native Americans developed their own unique cultures based on the area in which they had settled. Eventually, distinctive regional differences emerged. You can learn more about Archaic Geography of Ohio and Archaic Man at this link

Villages and Camps

The Archaic people had two different types of camps that they used, larger villages and smaller hunting camps. Villages were established where there was a large food source. Depending on the region where these camps were established, the food source could be fish or nuts. According to archaeologists, Ohio was home to at least ten different distinct cultures through the Archaic Period. These cultures are identified in the graph below taken from The Ohio Archaic: A Review. The time period of their occupation is given on the left side of the graph while they are arranged underneath the region of Ohio in which they were located.

Villages generally contained around 150 - 100 people at any given time. It was here that the Archaic people stayed the longest. Life was still nomadic in that family units moved with the seasons. During the winter, families would leave the village in smaller groups to dwell in rock shelters. These rock shelters were used year after year. The best rock shelters were those that were dry and faced the east. Early and Late smaller camps and rock shelters have been found throughout the state. Not everyone left the village during the winter. The elderly and others who could not travel during the winter often stayed behind in the village and ate from the preserved stock of food that had been gathered for them.

During the Spring, the family units would gather once again in the village. It was here they would supplement their diets with fish, berries, plants and nuts. Fishing required a team effort as the Archaic people used nets, spears, hooks on a line, and perhaps even poison to catch a large number of fish. Spring was the perfect season for the Archaic people to fish in because many types of fish swam up river in order to spawn.

Annual Spring gatherings were a joyous time in the village. Many social and ceremonial gatherings took place in the village.

Monday, August 22, 2016

Is #Autism a genetic condition? #genetics #disorders #education

One of the most asked questions about Autism (Aspergers Syndrome is on the Autism Spectrum)  is whether or not it has is a genetic condition. There are many families where more than one people have been diagnosed with a type of Autism.  

Scientists have been interested in determining why Autism seems to run in families. A 2011, a study of 226 infants throughout the United States found parents of an Autistic child may produce more Autistic children. Of the families who were studied 8-10% of Autistic children had siblings who had Autism as well. Nineteen percent of these siblings were younger than their brother or sister. The more children a family had the more likely they were to have Autistic children. Gender seems to make a difference as well. Of the families studied, 26% of boys were Autistic compared to 9% girls. The result of the study strongly proved there may be a genetic condition to Autism. 

Monday, August 15, 2016

The Exclusion of the ESL Learner in #Gifted #Education Programs

The Exclusion of the English Language Learners

Gifted Education programs are supposed to provide additional educational support to the intellectually gifted student yet not all gifted students are included in such programming. The largest groups to be underrepresented in gifted education programs are English Language Learners and students from impoverished homes. The problem with identifying gifted students from these two subgroups in our American culture is that they don't fit what is traditionally thought of as what a gifted learner should looked like. Educators try their hardest to provide for all their students' educational needs. More often than not, teachers spend more time with students who have a disability than trying to help the gifted child. There is a preconceived notion that the gifted learner will do alright in their grade level without the teacher's extra support.

Educators are often not taught about gifted learners and their needs while taking their coursework to become a teacher unless they specialize in special education. In most schools, gifted learners are expected to learn in a general education classroom. The gifted learner struggles with their classwork because they can easily become bored. A gifted learner doesn't learn like the rest of their peers. Educators are expected to evaluate their students to determine whether or not the student should be referred for testing so they can be included in the gifted education program. The problem is, some teachers will not refer a student because the student's personality doesn't fit what they believe a gifted learner should act like. Most of the time these are students with a disability, ESL and/or come from impoverished homes.

English Second Language 

Communication is important. But sometimes it can be hard to communicate with a student whose
language or dialect you don't understand.  Gifted ESL students strive harder to learn because they have a language barrier to overcome. Most times, educators will completely ignore a gifted ESL student not because they don't care but because they can't understand what the student is trying to communicate. Here are some tips for educators working with ESL learners.

1) Accept the minor differences in academic writing. 
Academic writing is hard for ESL learners because it is not the same as the day to day oral language they are learning from their peers. When working with an ESL student be mindful of the message they are trying to convey. Have the student tell you in their own words what the paper might say.

2) Be gentle when criticizing. 
ESL learners may be more sensitive than their peers when it comes to written and oral language. Don't just hand a paper back to them saying this and that was wrong. Explain to them what they did wrong and how to correct it.

3) Don't assume the ESL learner can't read.
ESL learners will be reading books at a much lower level than their academic peers only because they are new at learning the language. Just because they are reading at a lower level doesn't mean they don't understand literary and reading concepts. It's important for the teacher to sit down and converse with the student concerning these key concepts.

4) Encourage the student to read and talk in their native language at home.
Mastering a second language can be hard. Students who do not master their native tongue will have a harder time learning a second language. Don't tell the parents and student to stop talking in their native tongues. Encourage it. Ask the student to teach your class a new word in their language every week. Perhaps even encourage the students to share their customs with the class on a special day. They could include parts of their language.

5) Listen and Watch 
It's important for educators to keep an eye on their ESL student's progress. Keep a record of their growth and progress. When they are creating something, pay close attention to the theme. A gifted ESL student will exhibit their uniqueness in different ways. By paying close attention to these students the educator will be able to determine whether or not the student needs a referral for gifted education services.

Saturday, August 13, 2016

Dear Diary: In the Words of Lieutenant Michael Sanders

 Dear Diary:
In the Words of 
Lieutenant Michael Sanders

(Children of the Shawnee: 
Lies and Deceit)

Dear Diary, 

It has been a long day and an even longer week, if that is possible. The past few months I have spent organizing the men and preparing for the inevitable war with the Shawnee. I know it will only be a matter of time before they should attack our fort yet again. Each day, I wake up wondering if this will be the day or not. The longer I wait the more anxious I become. Thankfully, I have my beloved Rachel by my side. Lord Dunmore has made it quite clear the only females allowed at the station are the underaged daughters of soldiers or their wives. Rachel and I were quickly wed by a local Anglican minister so we could remain together. I am eternally grateful to Lord Dunmore for his ruling. I have been wanting to marry her for sometime but my military duties and station had prevented me from doing so. We are both so delighted to be together that there isn't a night where we don't give into our marital responsibilities. 

This morning, Rachel delivered a most disturbing order to me. It seems Lord Dunmore has requested my presence in his office. The order came within a day since I had received a letter from my father. My father has requested that I be transferred to Boston. While I would love Rachel to meet my family, I do not think it would be wise for me to transfer back home. It's only been four years since I ordered my men to shoot into the civilian mob. I was fortunate to escape from punishment for the Boston Massacre but the Sons of Liberty haven't forgotten. The demand that I hang for murder. I am quiet certain, should I return to Boston they will leave my wife a widow. Let us hope to God Lord Dunmore doesn't accept my father's request.

I must go. I hear General Braddox calling for me. 
Michael Sanders 

Friday, August 12, 2016

#CelebratetheSmallBlessings: #Glaucoma, #Cataracts and Legally Blind Blessings

This week has been a week of blessings for my family. It's amazing how small blessings can add up to bigger ones.

The biggest blessing my husband and I received this week came as a big surprise. He was told a few months ago that he had a secondary cataract behind the artificial lens in his left eye and a cataract in his right eye. We've known about the cataract in the right eye for six years. My husband has glaucoma and none of the specialists we have ever seen wanted to remove the cataract in the right eye.

My husband had seen an eye surgeon a month ago. She had recommended that he see a glaucoma
specialist to see if there is anything else that needs to be done. She also said he needed to have surgery to remove both cataracts. My husband has end stage glaucoma. He's had a shunt placed in his left eye and a blub in his right eye. The last doctor we had seen said there was nothing more they could do for my husband. He was declared legally blind in 2010 due to the end stage glaucoma.

Yesterday, we had thought his trip to the glaucoma specialist was going to be futile. My husband has been working with the Texas Department of the Blind. They had told him after they receive the recommendation from the glaucoma specialist that they would schedule his operations. We live three hours south of El Paso, where all the doctors are. My husband and his best friend drove to El Paso while I remained in Marfa. I couldn't leave my work and school. Imagine my surprise when the glaucoma specialist's office called me asking for my husband. I told them he was in their office. They said he had just left and the doctor had arranged for the cataract in the right eye to be removed that very day.

I called my husband. He told me they had removed the cataract in the left eye while he was there and was shocked that they had moved so quickly to have the right eye done. He hung up the phone and went to the surgery center. When he came home, later that night, he told me that the cataract in the right eye had been so large that the medical students were talking about. I am so grateful for the doctors who saw the urgency in the removal of the cataracts. My husband had been anxious and frustrated with all the delays before yesterday. He has a follow up in ten days with an eye doctor that is closer to us.

Tuesday, August 9, 2016

Ohio's Archaic Heritage: Burial Customs #NativeAmerican #Ohio #history

Burial Mounds by Allison Bruning
Ohio's Archaic Heritage:
Burial Customs

Welcome back to Ohio's Archaic Heritage. We have walked alongside our ancestors as they had to adapt to the climatic and geographical changes that beset upon them after the glaciers retreated back into Canada. As we learned in the previous posts, humans adapted quite well to their glacial free environment. They not only developed the atlatl and new hunting techniques but also began to settle down into a semi-sedentary lifestyle. Their sedentary lifestyle also lead to social changes that would remain a part of the Native American culture. These cultural changes included the adaptation of animal clans, participation in religious ceremonies, sacred objects, tribal affiliations, and a semi-nomadic lifestyle based on the seasons. 

The change from a Paleoindian to Archaic lifestyle did not happen overnight but was a gradual transition that occurred from the Early Archaic period to the Late Archaic period. The first Archaic Native Americans to have dwelt on the Black River Watershed in Ohio arrived on Lake Erie's southern shore around 6,500 years ago. Known as Canesadooharie or River of Many Pearls by the Wyandot Nation, the Black River is a twelve mile long river in Northern Ohio whose mouth meets Lake Erie. It is considered part of Saint Lawrence Watershed and runs to the Atlantic Ocean via Lake Erie, Niagara River, and Lake Ontario. It was this group of Archaic Native Americans that were first to proficiently harvest roots, berries, tubers, leaves, and nuts. They were also the first group to cultivate squash. We will talk later about early cultivation. 

Another group of Archaic Native Americans that is very well known in Ohio are the Glacial or Gravel
The Zimmerman Kame Site in Hardin County, Ohio
Kame Native Americans. The Glacial Kame Native Americans occupied Ohio between 8000 BC to 1000 BC. Archaeological records show this was a large tribe with villages spanning throughout southern Ontario, Michigan, Ohio and Indiana. The first Glacial Kame site discovered in Ohio occurred in 1856 near the village of Ridgeway in Hardin County, Ohio. The group was named Glacial Kame because they buried their dead in glacial kames, small hills of gravel, and sand deposited by glaciers. Archaeologists discovered Archaic 380 burials, which they removed from the site. Relics alongside the bodies included heavy copper beads, sole and saucer shaped ornaments of shell, masks made from skulls of wolves and bears and images of birds carved from hard slate. Hardin County has many Archaic Archaeological sites.

One of the most significant changes from Paleoindian to Archaic lifestyles was the burial of the dead. Every Archaic culture had developed their own scared rituals of burying their dead. Where the dead were buried was based on clan, family or social status. The Archaic people chose a specific site to bury their dead and would bring their dead to that site even if it meant it was miles away from where that person had died. Large cemeteries were established throughout Ohio and were used for extended period of time.  For example, The University of Toledo archaeologists found 18 burial pits from the Williams site along the Maumee River that had been in use from 850 to 380 B.C. That's nearly 500 years! These cemeteries were often in the form of burial mounds. Burial mounds were constructed by the entire community. We will talk more about burial mounds in our next series: The Moundbuilders. 

Monday, August 8, 2016

#LTW: Back to school. Back to normal routines? #gifted #education

This can be one of the most stressful times of the year for gifted students and their parents. The Back to School season can be a terrifying experience for gifted students. Anxiety levels increase as they think about the different changes in their lives, will the teacher understand them and will their friends still be there for them. Their summer routines and rituals are disrupted as the school season begins. That can sometimes be hard enough to endure but what happens when the gifted student makes a transition from one school to another?

A simple transition can be an enormous jump for gifted students. What is a parent supposed to do to help their child succeed. Unlike their age peers, intellectually gifted students may need some additional support in order to make the transition simpler. Here are a few things a parents can do to make the experience going from summer to school season go smoother.

1) Find out when the first day of school. A month before the first day of school begin to slowly transition your child into a new routine. Have your child get up and go to bed the same time they would while they are in school.

2) Back to School Shopping. Take your child Back to School shopping with you. Show them the list of supplies their teacher has requested. Let them pick out the supplies and clothes. This gives your child ownership. They will be more than likely to use the items you bought for school if they have a vested interest in them.

3) Arrange a time with the principal for you to take your child to their new school (if they are making a transition). Have your student practice finding their room (s), locker, cafeteria and playground in the order of their school day routine. This practice allows the gifted student the opportunity to accept the new normal routine on the first day of school without have a mental breakdown. If possible, have the student meet their teachers before Meet the Teacher night or the first day of school.

4) Take it slow. Don't overwhelm your student. Take baby steps with them as he or she adjust to the new normal routine.

Back to school time doesn't have to be so stressful for the intellectually gifted student. What other methods do you know about that will help your intellectually gifted child succeed during this crazy period of their lives?